Oestrogen

What is Oestrogen?

The oestrogens are a group of female sex hormones produced mainly by the hormones in the ovaries and fat cells. Estrone (E1) is the primary post-menopausal oestrogen. Estradiol (E2) is the non-pregnant reproductive age oestrogen. It is also present in males at low levels. Estriol (E3) is the main oestrogen during pregnancy.

estrogen
What does Oestrogen do?

Estradiol aids cyclic release of eggs from the ovaries and multiplies the endometrial lining of the uterus in preparation for egg implantation. It also assists in heart, bone, brain and colon function. Estrone is broken down into different compounds that can be protective against, or triggers for, estrogen-dependent cancers. The balance between these compounds is modifiable.

Oestrogen Deficiency Effects

During the Climacteric (leading up to the last menstruation), which usually starts at 35-45 yo, there is decreased progesterone production, leading to a relative excess of oestrogen (oestrogen dominance). This leads to overgrowth of the endometrium, fibroids, breast cysts, worse premenstrual syndrome, menstrual irregularities, breast / uterine / colon cancer. During the Menopause (after the last menstruation), oestrogen production decreases, and menstrual bleeding ceases. Oestrogen deficiency leads to hot flashes, insomnia, emotional liability, urogenital atrophy, bone loss, atherosclerosis, poor memory and cognition, dementia.

Oestrogen Replenishment

Oestrogen supplementation therapy with bio-identical hormones can reduce the deficiency symptoms and signs. By starting as soon as possible after menopause occurs, you can reduce your risk of cardiovascular disease (heart attack, stroke), osteoporosis, cognitive decline, dementia, skin thinning and dry mucous membranes

Optimal level of Estrogen

An optimal serum estradiol range in a menstruating female in the luteal (post-ovulation) phase is 200-1700 pmol/L. A normal serum estradiol in a post-menopausal female is < 200 pmol/L. An optimal saliva estradiol range in a menstruating woman at day 21 of the cycle is 6 – 17 pmol/L. A normal saliva estradiol in a post-menopausal female is 2 – 7 pmol/L.

Treatment and Oestrogen Supplementation

Oestrogen (E2 and E3) supplementation can be achieved via creams, gels, patches, capsules, tablets, liquids, vaginal creams or pessaries and implant injection. Oestrogen supplementation therapy can be used to supplement low oestrogen levels in a premenopausal female and to stabilise concentrations in a perimenopausal woman. Supplementation can continue up to five years post-menopause. The effects of supplementing for longer have not been thoroughly studied.

Optimal level of Oestrogen

An optimal serum estradiol range in a menstruating female in the luteal (post-ovulation) phase is 200-1700 pmol/L. A normal serum estradiol in a post-menopausal female is < 200 pmol/L. An optimal saliva estradiol range in a menstruating woman at day 21 of the cycle is 6 – 17 pmol/L. An average saliva estradiol in a post-menopausal female is 2 – 7 pmol/L.

Treatment and Oestrogen Supplementation

Oestrogen (E2 and E3) supplementation can be achieved via creams, gels, patches, capsules, tablets, liquids, vaginal creams or pessaries and implant injection. Oestrogen supplementation therapy can be used to supplement low oestrogen levels in a premenopausal female and to stabilise concentrations in a perimenopausal woman. Supplementation can continue up to five years post-menopause. The effects of increasing for longer have not been thoroughly studied.