The Parathyroid Gland Hormones

The Location and Function of the Parathyroid Gland

  • The four parathyroid glands are each about the size of a grain of rice.
  • The parathyroid glands are located behind the thyroid.
  • The parathyroid glands sole purpose is to secrete parathyroid hormone
  • The function of the parathyroid is to assist the nervous and muscular systems.
  • Parathyroid Gland Hormone is also called Parathormone or Parathyrin
parathyroid gland hormones and the function

The parathyroid gland hormone is:

Parathyroid Gland Hormone

Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) regulates the amount of calcium that gets absorbed from ones diet. It also will determine the amount of calcium that gets excreted by the kidneys and stored in the bones. Parathyroid hormone is released from the parathyroid glands in the neck when the blood calcium levels are low.

Parathyroid hormone acts to increase a low blood calcium level by
1. triggering bone breakdown and the release of calcium into the blood
2. increasing calcium reabsorption from the urine in the kidneys
3. activating calcitriol (vitamin D) in the kidney, which in turn increases calcium reabsorption from the intestines.

Parathyroid hormone levels are affected by age, gender, menopause, calcitriol and calcium supplementation, smoking, alcohol, steroids, family history, osteoporosis, physical activity, drugs controlling bone and calcium metabolism and diseases causing secondary osteoporosis (i.e. rheumatoid arthritis, sex hormone deficiencies).

Excess effects: Parathyroid hormone levels can increase with ageing, leading to increased calcium deposition in the tissues (i.e. brain, kidneys, arterial walls, heart valves), immune dysfunction and anaemia. Increased parathyroid hormone levels are associated with cognitive decline, dementia, osteopenia, osteoporosis and kidney stones.

Replenishment has been shown to increase healthspan and lifespan in mice and rats up to 20% via antioxidant and immune enhancement effects. More melatonin leads to better sleep (less time to sleep, fewer awakenings, increased sleep time and quality). More melatonin and better sleep lead to increased somatotrophin (growth hormone) release, leading to better tissue repair and rejuvenation at night. Melatonin also increases DHEA-S and the sex hormones, and lowers leptin and cortisol levels.

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