High-Intensity Training and its Effect on Muscle Growth
- Bodybuilding and weight training will stimulate more contractile protein.
- More contractile protein will thenÂ lead to further muscle nuclei (myonuclei) to function properly.
- The inactive stem (or satellite) cells around the muscle fibre then have the ability to be stimulated to fuse with the muscle fibre.
- It can then differentiate into myonuclei, and help produce and support the additional contractile proteins.
- High-intensity training is highly effective at both stimulating increased contractile protein, alongside supplying myonuclei to maintain cellular function.
- Maintaining the correct growth hormone and testosterone levelsÂ can also achieve this.
HowÂ toÂ Increase / Gain Muscle Mass
- In order to increase muscle size and strength there must be improvements made to the neurological control of the muscle cells. This improvement is made by way of the brain and spine.
- The brain sends signals along the motor pathways communicating to the muscles when, how rapid and powerfully they should contract in order to move.
- This neurological control is achieved through the sequence of frequent high-intensity repetitions of a particular movement.
- Each movement results in changes in nerve connections and activation thresholds.
- Muscle growth occurs primarily by the production of extra contractile proteins within the muscle cells, a process called muscle hypertrophy.
- There is also a small increase in the number of muscle cells, a process called hyperplasia
Muscle Growth on the Cellular Level.
- In a matter of hours post-workout, white blood cells called neutrophils and macrophages, enter the injured muscle to reduce inflammation on site.
- Cell signalling proteins called cytokines are also released, which in turn attract more white blood cells and satellite cells.
- Upon being signalled, satellite cells wake up from a relatively dormant state to proliferate at the site of the muscular injury. Satellite cells regulate gene expression, and they possess a single nucleus.
- The tissue damage prompts cellular replication and differentiation of the satellite cells into mature muscle cells by fusing to the existing muscle fibres.
- This new muscle protein strand will facilitate muscular repair.
- As training continues, satellite cells will continue to heal damaged muscles; flooding injured fibres with satellite cells. The cells will need to become part of the cell cycle in which the replication of molecular pathways takes place.
- Signalling pathways ultimately regulate activation and expansion of satellite cells, resulting in the production of bigger, stronger muscles.
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